【奥地利家居】罗马帘和奥地利帘该去哪里学习呢?

2021-09-26 06:25:48 阅读 评论

粤港澳在线2021-5-2701:052摘要:寻求帮助:我需要史特劳斯(奥地利作曲家)的英文故事JohannStraussIIwasanAustriancomposerknownespeciallyforhJohannStraussIIwasanAustriancomposerknow

  粤港澳在线

  2021-5-27 01:05

  2

  摘要: 寻求帮助:我需要史特劳斯(奥地利作曲家)的英文故事JohannStraussIIwasanAustriancomposerknownespeciallyforh

  Johann Strauss II was an Austrian composer known especially for his waltzes, such as The Blue Danube.

  Son of the composer Johann Strauss I, and brother to the composers Josef Strauss and Eduard Strauss, Johann II is the most famous of the family. He was known in his lifetime as "the waltz king," and the popularity of the waltz in Vienna through the 19th century is due in large part to him. He became the "waltz king" by his revolutionary elevation of the waltz from lowly peasant dance to sparkling entertainment for the royal Habsburg court. Not only did he revolutionize the waltz, but his work enjoyed greater fame than his predecessors such as his father and Josef Lanner. Some of his polkas and marches are also well known, as is his operetta Die Fledermaus.

  Biography

  The Early Years

  Strauss was born in Vienna, Austria. His father did not want him to become a musician but rather a banker; nevertheless he studied the violin secretly as a child: ironically with his father's first violinist in the Strauss orchestra, Franz Amon. However, when his father found out that he was fiddling away one day, Johann II recalled that 'there was a violent and unpleasant scene' and that 'his father wanted to know nothing of his musical plans'. It seems that rather than intending to avoid a Strauss rivalry, Strauss Sr. wanted his son to escape the rigors he understood to accompany a musical life. It was only when his father left the family and took on a mistress Emilie Trambusch when Johann II was 17 that he was able to concentrate fully on a career as a composer.

  Johann Jr. then studied counterpoint and harmony from theorist Professor Joachim Hoffmann who owned a private music school. His talents were also recognised by composer Josef Drechsler (also spelt as Drexler) who taught him exercises in harmony. His other violin teacher, Anton Kollmann who was the ballet répétiteur of the Vienna Court Opera also wrote excellent testimonials for him. Armed with these testimonials, he approached the Viennese authorities to apply for a license to perform and would initially form his small orchestra where he recruited his members from the tavern 'Zur Stadt Belgrad' where musicians seeking work could be hired easily. Johann Strauss I's influence meant that many establishments were wary of offering the younger Strauss any contracts for fear of angering the former. The younger Strauss was then able to persuade the Dommayer's Casino, Hietzing in Vienna to give him a chance at his debut. The local media were soon frantically reporting of a 'Strauss v. Strauss' rivalry between father and son. Strauss senior himself, in anger at the prospect of his son disobeying his wishes, also would not play at the Dommayer's Casino ever in his lifetime, which was surprising as the Hietzing establishment was the site of his many earlier triumphs.

  Strauss son found the early career years difficult but he soon won over audiences after accepting commissions to perform away from home. The first major appointment for the young composer would be his award of the honorary position of "Kapellmeister of the 2nd Vienna Citizen's Regiment" which was left vacant following Josef Lanner's death two years before. Vienna was racked by a bourgeois revolution on 24th February 1848 and the intense rivalry between father and son became more apparent and eventually, Johann the younger decided to side with the revolutionaries; a decision which was both musically and professionally at his disadvantage as the Austrian royalties twice denied him the much coveted KK Hofballmusikdirektor position, which was first designated specially for Johann Strauss I in reward for his musical contributions. Further, the younger Strauss was also hauled up by the Viennese authorities for publicly playing the infectious La Marseillaise which stoked revolutionary feelings. When the elder Strauss died from scarlet fever in 1849 in Vienna, the younger Strauss merged both their orchestras and engaged in further tours.

  Career Advancements

  He would eventually surpass his father's fame, and become the most popular of all waltz composers, extensively touring Austria, Poland and Germany with his orchestra. It would be a usual sight for his audiences to catch sight of Strauss for only one performance before he would quickly hurry to another venue where he was commissioned to play via the traditional fiaker. It would be the ultimate showmanship and this would be displayed on the placards at the venues to proudly proclaim "Heut Spielt der Strauss!" or 'Strauss plays today!'. He also made visits to Russia where he performed at Pavlovsk and wrote many compositions there and retitling it to suit his Viennese audiences back home, Britain where he performed with his first wife Jetty Treffz at the Covent Garden, France, Italy and the United States later in the 1870s where he took part in the Boston Festival and was the lead conductor in the 'Monster Concert' of over 1000 musicians.

  Among the more popular dance pieces Strauss wrote in this period include the waltzes S?ngerfahrten op. 41, Liebeslieder op. 114, Nachtfalter op. 157, Accelerationen op. 234 and the polkas Annen op. 117, and Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka op. 214.

  Marriages

  He married the singer Jetty Treffz in 1862 and applied for the KK Hofballmusikdirektor Music Director of the Royal Court Balls position which he eventually achieved in 1863 after being denied several times before for his frequent brush with the local authorities. His involvement with the Court Balls meant that his work has been elevated to be even heard by the royalty. His second wife, Angelika Dittrich (an actress) whom he married in 1878 was not a fervent supporter of his music and their differences in age and opinion, especially her indiscretion led him to seek a divorce.

  Strauss was not granted a divorce by the Roman Catholic church and therefore changed religion and nationality and became a citizen of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha on January 28, 1887. Strauss II sought solace in his third wife Adele (whom he married on August 15, 1887) and she encouraged the creative talent to flow once more in his later years, resulting in much fine music such as those found in the operettas 'Der Zigeunerbaron' and 'Waldmeister' and the waltzes 'Kaiser-Walzer','Kaiser Jubilaum','M?rchen aus dem Orient' op. 444 and 'Klug Gretelein' op. 462.

  Family Musical Business

  After establishing his first orchestra prior to his father's death, he founded many others to be supplied to various entertainment establishments such as the 'Sperl' ballroom as well as the 'Apollo' where he dedicated appropriately titled pieces to commemorate the first performances there. Later, he accepted commissions to play in Russia for the Archduke Michael and Tsar Alexander II especially in Pavlovsk where a new railway line was built. When the commissions became too much to be handled by him alone, he sought to promote his younger brothers Josef and Eduard to deputise in his absence from either poor health or a busy schedule. In 1853, he was even confined to a sanatorium to recuperate as he was suffering from shivering fits and neuralgia. Anxious that the family business that she so lovingly nurtured would be ruined, mother Anna helped persuade a reluctant Josef to take over the helm of the Strauss Orchestra. The Viennese welcomed both brothers eventually and Johann even once admitted that 'Josef was the more talented of the two of us, I'm merely the more popular.' Josef went on to stamp his own mark into his own waltzes and this fresh rivalry did more good for the development of the waltz as Johann Strauss II proceeded to consolidate his position as the "waltz king" with his exquisite The Blue Danube waltz which began life as a choral waltz with banal words written by a local poet.

  The highlight of the Strauss triumvirate was displayed in the concert of 'Perpetual Music' in 1860s where his aptly titled 'Perpetuum Mobile' musical joke op. 257, was played continuously by all three Strauss brothers at the helm of three large orchestras. At around the same time, the three Strauss brothers also organised many musical activities during their concerts at the Vienna Volksgarten where the audience would be able to participate. For example, a new piece would be played and the audience would be asked to guess who the composer was as the placards would only announce the piece as written by a 'Strauss' followed by question mark punctuations.

  Musical Rivals and Admirers

  Johann Strauss (including the Strauss family) was not without rivals. Although the most sought-after composer of dance music was Johann Strauss II in the 1860s to the 1890s, stiff competition was present in the form of Karl Michael Ziehrer and Emile Waldteufel whom the latter was commanding in his position in Paris. Much earlier, Johann Strauss I faced a long rivalry with fellow composer Josef Lanner and Josef Gungl. Ziehrer would eventually eclipse the Strauss family after Johann and Josef's deaths and posed more than a challenge to Eduard. The German operetta composer Offenbach who made his name in Paris also posed a challenge to Strauss in the operetta field. Later, the emergence of operetta maestro Lehár would usher in the Silver Age in Vienna and most certainly sweep aside Strauss dominance in the operetta world.

  He was admired by prominent composers of the day, including Richard Wagner who once admitted that he admired the waltz Wein, Weib und Gesang op. 333 and Johannes Brahms, who was also a personal friend, and to whom he dedicated his waltz Seid umschlungen Millionen or 'Be Embraced Millions' op. 443 inspired by a poem by Friedrich Schiller. Other admirers include Richard Strauss (unrelated) who, when writing his Rosenkavalier waltzes, said 'How could I forget the laughing genius of Vienna?' which made a reference to Johann Strauss the younger.

  Stage Works

  Strauss' operettas, however, have not had as much enduring success as have his dance pieces: and much of the success was reserved for Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron. Notwithstanding the lack of popularity of his operettas, there are much dance pieces drawn from themes of his lukewarmly-received operettas such as 'Cagliostro-Walzer' op. 370 and 'Rosen aus dem Süden' Walzer op. 388. He also wrote an opera, Ritter Pásmán which could be faulted on the libretto but nevertheless,many attribute his strong links to the waltz and the polka as his failure as this may well indicate that he may not be able to write serious music. In fact, for his third and most successful operetta of all time, Die Fledermaus 1874, music critics of Vienna prophesied that his work would only be a 'motif of waltz and polka melodies'. Nonetheless, his fiercest critic and ironically a strong supporter, Eduard Hanslick wrote at the time of Strauss's death in 1899 that his demise would signify the end of the last happy times in Vienna. Johann Strauss II died from pneumonia in Vienna in 1899 at the age of 74 and was buried there in the Zentralfriedhof. At the time of his death, he was still working on his ballet Aschenbr?del.

  Legacy

  Strauss' music is now regularly performed at the annual Neujahrskonzert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, as a result of the efforts by Clemens Krauss who performed a special all-Strauss programme in 1929 with the Viennese orchestra. Many distinguished Strauss interpreters include Willi Boskovsky who carried on the "Vorgeiger" tradition of conducting with violin in hand as is the Strauss family custom as well as the famous Herbert von Karajan and the opera conductor Riccardo Muti.

  It is to be noted that most of the Strauss works that we are all familiar with today may have existed in a near negligible different form as conceived by Johann Strauss II and his brothers as Eduard Strauss destroyed a great amount of original Strauss orchestral archives in a furnace manufacturer in Vienna's Mariahilf district in 1907. The Johann Strauss societies around the world have, however, painstakingly pieced together a large body of these destroyed works to be appreciated by future generations. Eduard Strauss, then the only surviving brother, took this drastic precaution to prevent Strauss works from being openly claimed as another composer's own. This may have also been fuelled by the intense rivalry between the other popular waltz and march composer, Karl Michael Ziehrer.

  罗马帘又叫升降帘--在绳索的牵引下作上下移动的窗帘。 罗马帘安功能分手动罗马帘和电动罗马帘。 按形状分为折叠式、扇形式、波浪式。 这些小知识我都是从其美家居看到的,你网上搜一下其美家居或其美布艺都可以看到网站。

  暖暖环游世界啪嗒的清单一直是公认奥地利最有难点的一个关卡,下面未来小编就带大家一起来看看暖暖环游世界奥地利啪嗒的清单s通关攻略。

  发型:北欧女神

  外套:温暖牌睡衣

  上衣:兔子上衣

  下装:粉红兔子

  袜子:喜剧兔子

  鞋子:可爱兔子家居拖鞋

  这图最关键的是袜子,袜子只能靠刷地图得了。

  有几点我先说一下:

  1.欧盟在今年6月会全面取消漫游费,所以6月后各国的电话卡可能会有不少信息变动。去欧洲会越来越方便了。离开法国后实际上我一直没有退掉我的电话卡,每次去欧洲都还能用,运营商也推出了不少便宜的漫游套餐,我已经告别每到一个地方就买卡的习惯。

  2.如果没有电话需求,其实租个移动WIFI是非常方便的,缺点是要每天充电,且要背着。但是多人分享且多国通用已经便利很多了,这里我不做任何品牌的推荐,用过很多家的wifi,其实都差不多。

  3.以下信息有些可能已经失效需要更新,不过很多运营商和方法都是通用的,可以供各位参考。

  以下为正文

  本帖汇集了欧洲38个国家的预付费电话卡(Prepaid Card)信息,从热门的英法意德瑞到小众的摩尔多瓦,塞浦路斯,都根据当地运营商网上的信息,也根据自己曾经在10多个欧洲国家购买电话卡的实际经验进行了一一核对,整理以及翻译。如今互联网对于人们的生活越来越重要,旅行途中,自己的移动设备能够上网也能使旅行更方便。其实在欧洲,购买当地的电话卡十分便捷,大部分地区的资费也比较平易近人,本帖的宗旨也是希望大家能够清晰的了解当地电讯资费的价格以及购买方式,让大家的旅途更舒适愉快。

  1.如何选择适合自己的电话卡:

  如今国人都逐渐的走出国门,而许多人的也做起了这方面的生意。比如小小的电话卡,X宝上也有各种各样的。这里没有打压X宝店主生意的意思,只是客观的列出电话卡的实际价格,给大家一个清晰的比较,究竟是图省事多付一些钱,还是自己动手,丰衣足食。如果在国内有移动wifi,可以带一个,这样去当地购买上网卡开热点共享,适合多人出游,更加经济实惠。

  首先要确立你的需求:

  1.上网型——选择纯上网卡或者只买卡+上网套餐包,或者租用移动WIFI。

  2.国内通讯型——选择包全球通讯的或者打中国资费较低的。

  3.多种需求——选择全包类的套餐方便多人在外国互相联系以及上网。

  其次需要对比一下提供相似服务的运营商的优缺点:

  比如有效期,套餐优惠程度,运营商信号的强弱,流量的多少,带不带4G,可不可以共享个人热点,网点够不够多,够不够方便等。

  最后要注意一些事项和要点:

  比如所用手机的制式是不是符合当地网络的标准,SIM卡的大小和标准是否相符等。

  2.简易FAQ:

  1) Q:我要去A国,B国,C国一共X天,楼主求帮忙推荐一下用哪个卡吧?

  A:请参考表格内运营商的套餐,根据自己的行程自己选择。欧洲国家现在存在漫游费,一般来说每个国家购买的电话卡只能在该国使用。如行程跨国可以考虑少数不多的几家有漫游套餐的公司或者一国买一张卡。

  2) Q:我的移动/联通/电信 手机可以用X运营商的电话卡吗?支持4G/LTE吗?可以做热点分享吗?

  A:如果没有单独说明,一般都支持热点分享(Lebara和Lycamobile之类的网络运营商一般都不可以),大部分欧洲运营商支持标准的GSM和WCDMA制式,一般iPhone也都可以使用到4G。具体的还请根据自己手机的情况再自己查询一下。

  3.表格的一些说明:

  由于精力有限,我无法收集到所有地区的所有信息,这里选取了这些国家的实体运营商和热门的虚拟运营商,其间http://prepaidwithdata.wikia.com/wiki/Prepaid_SIM_with_data给予了我很多导向性的帮助,如果有网友不明确表格中的信息,也可以参考以上wiki和我提供的官网的信息。在表格中如无特殊说明,则为正常的使用习惯。

  表格查阅指南:套餐名称+可选包套餐一般指代预付费的套餐,一般包含电话资费。上网卡套餐一般只限于上网功能。网络叠加包则一般可以叠加在2种套餐上,用于购买更多的流量。购买方式则一般提供了网点或经销商的地址查询。

  4.一些关于电话卡的英文术语:

  预付费卡——Prepaid Card/Pay as you go Sim Card

  后付费卡——Postpaid Card/Pay monthly Sim Card

  充值——Top up/Recharge

  无线共享/个人热点——Tethering/Personal Hotspot

  正常大小电话卡——Mini Sim Card/Standard Sim Card

  适用于iPhone4/4S等电话的电话卡——Micro Sim Card

  适用于iPhone5/5S/6等电话的电话卡——Nano Sim Card

  漫游——Roaming

  数据流量/流量套餐——Data/Data Pack

  通讯套餐——Voice/SMS Pack & Bundle

  补充包/叠加包——Add on

  上网卡——Data only Sim Card/Mobile Broadband

  信号覆盖范围——Coverage

  网点查找——Store Locator

  几张热门卡推荐:

  考虑到大家喜欢一张卡走遍各国,但是大多数国家的卡又只能在本国使用,在这里我特地找了几张可以漫游的卡片,为大家做重点推荐。大家可以在做行程时考虑将这几个国家列为首个出行目的地或者直接通过其他渠道购买这几种卡片,达到一卡走欧洲的境界。

  意大利TIM卡

  网站:http://www.international.tim.it/en/tim-welcome

  http://www.tim.it/estero/tim-in-viaggio-pass

  购买方式-TIM商店:http://www.tim.it/trova-negozio?nt=on

  西班牙Orange卡

  网站:http://en.orange.es/mobile-service-plans/?pst=1

  购买方式-Orange商店:http://tiendas.orange.es/?utm_source=orange&utm_medium=home&utm_term=pie+corporativo

  瑞士Swisscom卡

  网站:https://www.swisscom.ch/en/residential/mobile/subscription-tariffs/top-up-easy-credit.html

  购买方式-Swisscom商店:http://shoplocator.swisscom.ch/en/locator

  英国3卡:

  网站:http://store.three.co.uk/pricePlans?payGPriceForTariff=0to49.99

  购买方式-3商店:http://www.three.co.uk/Support/Store_locator?postcode=

  38国运营商小电梯(按英文首字母排序)

  我就不一一搬运过来了,可以直接点击去查看

  阿尔巴尼亚-Albania 奥地利-Austria 比利时-Belgium 保加利亚-Bulgaria 克罗地亚-Croatia 塞浦路斯-Cyprus 捷克共和国-Czech Republic 丹麦-Denmark 爱沙尼亚-Estonia 芬兰-Finland 法国-France 德国-Germany 希腊-Greece 匈牙利-Hungary 冰岛-Iceland 爱尔兰-Ireland 意大利-Italy 拉脱维亚-Latvia 立陶宛-Lithuania 卢森堡-Luxembourg 马其顿共和国-Republic of Macedonia 马耳他-Malta 摩尔多瓦-Moldova 黑山-Montenegro 荷兰-Netherlands 挪威-Norway 波兰-Poland 葡萄牙-Portugal 罗马尼亚-Romania 俄罗斯-Russia 塞尔维亚-Serbia 斯洛伐克-Slovakia 斯洛文尼亚-Slovenia 西班牙-Spain 瑞典-Sweden 瑞士-Switzerland 土耳其-Turkey 英国-United Kindom

  最后,肯定有不少信息需要更新,也需要勘误了,如果觉得不对的欢迎指出。

  上一篇:【安平智能家居】北京安德森科技有限公司是做什么的?好吗?麻烦了解的人给介绍一下下一篇:【足浴沙发材质】(浴场足浴沙发一般要多少钱)

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